A Technical Look into the Valuation For Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN) and Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B)

In taking a look at some key indicators for Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN), we note that the current Book to Market value for the firm is at 1.074744. The Book to Market or BTM is calculated as Market Value (or Stock Price)/Book Value. Investors often look for shares with high Book to Market value as this could indicate that the equity is priced below market value and underpriced.

A ratio of a publicly-traded company’s book value to its market value. That is, the BTM is a comparison of a company’s net asset value per share to its share price. This is a useful tool to help determine how the market prices a company relative to its actual worth. A ratio greater than one indicates an undervalued company, while a ratio less than one means a company is overvalued. Value managers seek out companies with high BTMs for their portfolios.

Investors will be closely tracking stock market movements over the next few months. As we break into the second part of the year, many will be researching what they did right and what they did wrong in the first half. Recent market action may have investors questioning if a major pullback is on the horizon, or if momentum will turn back to the upside. Investors will have to determine if any tweaks will need to be made to the portfolio. If the economic data continues to display optimism, investors may be able to confidently make some moves to help bolster returns. Over the next few quarters, investors will be hoping that modest gains can turn into major gains.

Additional Tools

There are many different tools to determine whether a company is profitable or not.  One of the most popular ratios is the “Return on Assets” (aka ROA).  This score indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets.  The Return on Assets for Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN) is 0.005149.  This number is calculated by dividing net income after tax by the company’s total assets.  A company that manages their assets well will have a higher return, while a company that manages their assets poorly will have a lower return.

Looking at some ROIC (Return on Invested Capital) numbers, Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN)’s ROIC is 0.010835. The ROIC 5 year average is 0.011355 and the ROIC Quality ratio is 1.811384. ROIC is a profitability ratio that measures the return that an investment generates for those providing capital. ROIC helps show how efficient a firm is at turning capital into profits. 

In terms of EBITDA Yield, Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN) currently has a value of . This value is derived by dividing EBITDA by Enterprise Value.

The Current Ratio of Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN) is 7.64. The Current Ratio is used by investors to determine whether a company can pay short term and long term debts. The current ratio looks at all the liquid and non-liquid assets compared to the company’s total current liabilities. A high current ratio indicates that the company might have trouble managing their working capital. A low current ratio (when the current liabilities are higher than the current assets) indicates that the company may have trouble paying their short term obligations.

The Leverage Ratio of Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN) is 0.020307. Leverage ratio is the total debt of a company divided by total assets of the current and past year divided by two. Companies take on debt to finance their day to day operations. The leverage ratio can measure how much of a company’s capital comes from debt. With this ratio, investors can better estimate how well a company will be able to pay their long and short term financial obligations.

Piotroski F Score

The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength. The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not. The Piotroski F-Score of Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN) is 6. A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock. The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings. It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue. The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.

Checking in on some valuation rankings, Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN) has a Value Composite score of 31. Developed by James O’Shaughnessy, the VC score uses five valuation ratios. These ratios are price to earnings, price to cash flow, EBITDA to EV, price to book value, and price to sales. The VC is displayed as a number between 1 and 100. In general, a company with a score closer to 0 would be seen as undervalued, and a score closer to 100 would indicate an overvalued company. Adding a sixth ratio, shareholder yield, we can view the Value Composite 2 score which is currently sitting at 40.

Volatility/C Score

Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase.  Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year.  The Volatility 12m of Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN) is 16.738400.  This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized.  The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility.  The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months.  The Volatility 3m of Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN) is 20.635400.  The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months.  The Volatility 6m is 16.896000.

Swiss Life Holding AG (SWX:SLHN) currently has a Montier C-score of 2.00000. This indicator was developed by James Montier in an attempt to identify firms that were cooking the books in order to appear better on paper. The score ranges from zero to six where a 0 would indicate no evidence of book cooking, and a 6 would indicate a high likelihood. A C-score of -1 would indicate that there is not enough information available to calculate the score. Montier used six inputs in the calculation. These inputs included a growing difference between net income and cash flow from operations, increasing receivable days, growing day’s sales of inventory, increasing other current assets, decrease in depreciation relative to gross property plant and equipment, and high total asset growth.

Individual investors may be going to great lengths to make their hard earned money work for them in the stock market. The stock market can be a scary place for beginners with little to no experience. Studying the ins and outs of the markets can help provide a solid base for the new investor to work with. Many people will jump into the game thinking they are going to easily make large profits in the market. Although this is a possibility, many investors will learn the hard way that sustaining profits over the long-term can be a tough endeavor. Studying all the different company information can take up a lot of time and energy. Some people just don’t have the time they would like to put into stock market study.

Here we will take a look at several key ratios for Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B), starting with the Book to Market (BTM) ratio. Value investors seek stocks with high BTMs for their portfolios.  The ratio is a comparison of the firm’s net asset value per share to it’s current price.  This is helpful in determining how the market values the company compared to it’s actual worth.  The Book to Market value of Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) currently stands at 0.380612.

Investors may be taking a closer look stock market trends as we move into the second half of the year. Investors often have to grapple with the timing of selling a stock. After all the research is done and the portfolio is rounded out, the time will eventually come when decisions need to be made about whether to hold a winner or sell to lock up some profits. Often times, investors will hold on to a certain stock for much too long letting profits erode. Thinking that a hot stock will keep going higher and higher, may lead to lost profits further down the road. On the flip side, investors may become emotionally attached to a stock and not be able to part ways when the time has come. Avoiding the trap of waiting for a stock to bounce back and just break even can lead to the undoing of the portfolio. The belief that a particular stock will definitely come back to the buying level may leave investors out in the cold. Being able to keep the emotions in check and stay focused on the pertinent data, may help the stock portfolio thrive into the future.

In terms of EBITDA Yield, Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B) currently has a value of 0.026479. This value is derived by dividing EBITDA by Enterprise Value.

Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B) presently has a current ratio of 1.52. The current ratio, also known as the working capital ratio, is a liquidity ratio that displays the proportion of current assets of a business relative to the current liabilities. The ratio is simply calculated by dividing current liabilities by current assets. The ratio may be used to provide an idea of the ability of a certain company to pay back its liabilities with assets. Typically, the higher the current ratio the better, as the company may be more capable of paying back its obligations.

The Price to book ratio is the current share price of a company divided by the book value per share.  The Price to Book ratio for Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) OM:ERIC B is 2.627349.  A lower price to book ratio indicates that the stock might be undervalued.  Similarly, Price to cash flow ratio is another helpful ratio in determining a company’s value.  The Price to Cash Flow for Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B) is 15.408088.  This ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of a company by cash from operating activities.  Additionally, the price to earnings ratio is another popular way for analysts and investors to determine a company’s profitability.  The price to earnings ratio for Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B) is -12.372560. This ratio is found by taking the current share price and dividing by earnings per share.

Looking at some ROIC (Return on Invested Capital) numbers, Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B)’s ROIC is 0.015960. The ROIC 5 year average is 0.103593 and the ROIC Quality ratio is 1.539936. ROIC is a profitability ratio that measures the return that an investment generates for those providing capital. ROIC helps show how efficient a firm is at turning capital into profits. 

Free Cash Flow Growth (FCF Growth) is the free cash flow of the current year minus the free cash flow from the previous year, divided by last year’s free cash flow.  The FCF Growth of Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B) is 0.185651.  Free cash flow (FCF) is the cash produced by the company minus capital expenditure.  This cash is what a company uses to meet its financial obligations, such as making payments on debt or to pay out dividends.  The Free Cash Flow Score (FCF Score) is a helpful tool in calculating the free cash flow growth with free cash flow stability – this gives investors the overall quality of the free cash flow.  The FCF Score of Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B) is 0.761955.  Experts say the higher the value, the better, as it means that the free cash flow is high, or the variability of free cash flow is low or both.

The Gross Margin Score is calculated by looking at the Gross Margin and the overall stability of the company over the course of 8 years.  The score is a number between one and one hundred (1 being best and 100 being the worst).  The Gross Margin Score of Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B) is 20.00000.  The more stable the company, the lower the score.  If a company is less stable over the course of time, they will have a higher score.

At the time of writing, Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B) has a Piotroski F-Score of 3. The F-Score may help discover companies with strengthening balance sheets. The score may also be used to spot the weak performers. Joseph Piotroski developed the F-Score which employs nine different variables based on the company financial statement. A single point is assigned to each test that a stock passes. Typically, a stock scoring an 8 or 9 would be seen as strong. On the other end, a stock with a score from 0-2 would be viewed as weak.

Shifting gears, we can see that Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B) has a Q.i. Value of 50.00000. The Q.i. Value ranks companies using four ratios. These ratios consist of EBITDA Yield, FCF Yield, Liquidity, and Earnings Yield. The purpose of the Q.i. Value is to help identify companies that are the most undervalued. Typically, the lower the value, the more undervalued the company tends to be.

Watching some historical volatility numbers on shares of Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson (publ) (OM:ERIC B), we can see that the 12 month volatility is presently 35.152000. The 6 month volatility is 29.652700, and the 3 month is spotted at 32.310600. Following volatility data can help measure how much the stock price has fluctuated over the specified time period. Although past volatility action may help project future stock volatility, it may also be vastly different when taking into account other factors that may be driving price action during the measured time period.

Investors paying close attention to the daily ebbs and flows of the stock market may be trying to guess which way momentum will swing into the next couple of months. Finding those stocks that are ready to ride the lightning may not be the easiest task with markets chugging along near all time highs. Investors may have to first figure out how much risk they want to take on when picking the next round of stocks. Once the risk appetite is determined, investors can start to decide whether they think it is best to go with the flow or buck the trend. Either way, paying attention to short-term and long-term price moves may help paint a clearer picture of what is happening with a particular stock. Maybe those stocks that were sure-fire winners a few months ago have lost some steam. Adjusting the portfolio may or may not be necessary, but knowing exactly what stocks are owned and how they are performing may help with additional decision making along the way. Of course nobody wants to be on the outside looking in as a stock is taking off, but there should be plenty of other opportunities in the future. Staying current with global economic conditions and keeping a finger on the pulse of the company during earnings season can help shed some light on where the stock may be headed next.  

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