The Price to book ratio is the current share price of a company divided by the book value per share. The Price to Book ratio for Japara Healthcare Limited ASX:JHC is 0.652542. A lower price to book ratio indicates that the stock might be undervalued. Similarly, Price to cash flow ratio is another helpful ratio in determining a company’s value. The Price to Cash Flow for Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC) is 9.813005. This ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of a company by cash from operating activities. Additionally, the price to earnings ratio is another popular way for analysts and investors to determine a company’s profitability. The price to earnings ratio for Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC) is 14.931737. This ratio is found by taking the current share price and dividing by earnings per share.

The stock market can be an exciting yet scary place for investors who are just starting out. Individual investors who decide to manage their own portfolios may need to hit the books and be ready to take a comprehensive approach. There is no lack of information about investing in the stock market, but figuring out where to start can be difficult. Setting up goals and defining the investment plan can help start the investor down the right path. As many seasoned investors know, there can be times when nothing seems to be going right. Keeping a clear head and focusing on the relevant information can help the investor stay steady when the going gets tough.

Checking in on some valuation rankings, Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC) has a Value Composite score of 17. Developed by James O’Shaughnessy, the VC score uses five valuation ratios. These ratios are price to earnings, price to cash flow, EBITDA to EV, price to book value, and price to sales. The VC is displayed as a number between 1 and 100. In general, a company with a score closer to 0 would be seen as undervalued, and a score closer to 100 would indicate an overvalued company. Adding a sixth ratio, shareholder yield, we can view the Value Composite 2 score which is currently sitting at 10.

Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC) has a current MF Rank of 9500. Developed by hedge fund manager Joel Greenblatt, the intention of the formula is to spot high quality companies that are trading at an attractive price. The formula uses ROIC and earnings yield ratios to find quality, undervalued stocks. In general, companies with the lowest combined rank may be the higher quality picks.

Further, we can see that Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC) has a Shareholder Yield of 0.057872 and a Shareholder Yield (Mebane Faber) of -0.18472. The first value is calculated by adding the dividend yield to the percentage of repurchased shares. The second value adds in the net debt repaid yield to the calculation. Shareholder yield has the ability to show how much money the firm is giving back to shareholders via a few different avenues. Companies may issue new shares and buy back their own shares. This may occur at the same time. Investors may also use shareholder yield to gauge a baseline rate of return.

The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength. The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not. The Piotroski F-Score of Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC) is 3. A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock. The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings. It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue. The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.

Investors may be interested in viewing the Gross Margin score on shares of Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC). The name currently has a score of 50. This score is derived from the Gross Margin (Marx) stability and growth over the previous eight years. The Gross Margin score lands on a scale from 1 to 100 where a score of 1 would be considered positive, and a score of 100 would be seen as negative.

**Volatility/PI**

Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase. Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year. The Volatility 12m of Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC) is 28.9994. This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized. The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility. The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months. The Volatility 3m of Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC) is 44.6972. The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months. The Volatility 6m is 35.2562.

The Price Index is a ratio that indicates the return of a share price over a past period. The price index of Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC) for last month was 0.75702. This is calculated by taking the current share price and dividing by the share price one month ago. If the ratio is greater than 1, then that means there has been an increase in price over the month. If the ratio is less than 1, then we can determine that there has been a decrease in price. Similarly, investors look up the share price over 12 month periods. The Price Index 12m for Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC) is 0.79513.

There are many different tools to determine whether a company is profitable or not. One of the most popular ratios is the “Return on Assets” (aka ROA). This score indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. The Return on Assets for Japara Healthcare Limited (ASX:JHC) is 0.02091. This number is calculated by dividing net income after tax by the company’s total assets. A company that manages their assets well will have a higher return, while a company that manages their assets poorly will have a lower return.

One of the most important factors that investors look at when examining stocks is the consistency of earnings results. When the quarterly earnings report is released, investors watch closely to see if the company is performing up to expectations. A company that fails to meet projections may see large price swings following the report. Of course one bad quarter may not signal trouble, but a company that continually disappoints during earnings season may need to be further examined to help figure out what is going on. Experienced investors will closely watch stock price movements before and after earnings events in order to gain a truer understanding of how the market is reacting to the reports.

The Price to Book ratio for Orora Limited ASX:ORA is 2.406458. The Price to book ratio is the current share price of a company divided by the book value per share. A lower price to book ratio indicates that the stock might be undervalued. Similarly, Price to cash flow ratio is another helpful ratio in determining a company’s value. The Price to Cash Flow for Orora Limited (ASX:ORA) is 11.926231. This ratio is calculated by dividing the market value of a company by cash from operating activities. Additionally, the price to earnings ratio is another popular way for analysts and investors to determine a company’s profitability. The price to earnings ratio for Orora Limited (ASX:ORA) is 18.490717. This ratio is found by taking the current share price and dividing by earnings per share.

When it comes to investing in the equity market, discipline can play a major role in achieving ones goals. A few bad moves can send the investor’s confidence spiraling. Acting purely on emotion can lead to impulsive decisions that may cause the losses to pile up. Creating a solid plan and following through with the plan can help investors stay on track and focus on the proper details. Markets are constantly going up and down and the investing ride can sometimes be a bumpy one. Being able to see the big picture and focus on the important data can help keep the investor tuned in to the right channel. Investors who expect to jump into the market and immediately start raking in the profits may find out fairly quickly that trading without a plan can be a recipe for defeat.

Volatility/PI

Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase. Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year. The Volatility 12m of Orora Limited (ASX:ORA) is 14.5534. This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized. The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility. The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months. The Volatility 3m of Orora Limited (ASX:ORA) is 17.1427. The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months. The Volatility 6m is 15.8541.

The Price Index is a ratio that indicates the return of a share price over a past period. The price index of Orora Limited (ASX:ORA) for last month was 0.94209. This is calculated by taking the current share price and dividing by the share price one month ago. If the ratio is greater than 1, then that means there has been an increase in price over the month. If the ratio is less than 1, then we can determine that there has been a decrease in price. Similarly, investors look up the share price over 12 month periods. The Price Index 12m for Orora Limited (ASX:ORA) is 1.10586.

Further, we can see that Orora Limited (ASX:ORA) has a Shareholder Yield of 0.031969 and a Shareholder Yield (Mebane Faber) of 0.02738. The first value is calculated by adding the dividend yield to the percentage of repurchased shares. The second value adds in the net debt repaid yield to the calculation. Shareholder yield has the ability to show how much money the firm is giving back to shareholders via a few different avenues. Companies may issue new shares and buy back their own shares. This may occur at the same time. Investors may also use shareholder yield to gauge a baseline rate of return.

Checking in on some valuation rankings, Orora Limited (ASX:ORA) has a Value Composite score of 30. Developed by James O’Shaughnessy, the VC score uses five valuation ratios. These ratios are price to earnings, price to cash flow, EBITDA to EV, price to book value, and price to sales. The VC is displayed as a number between 1 and 100. In general, a company with a score closer to 0 would be seen as undervalued, and a score closer to 100 would indicate an overvalued company. Adding a sixth ratio, shareholder yield, we can view the Value Composite 2 score which is currently sitting at 24.

Orora Limited (ASX:ORA) has a current MF Rank of 4662. Developed by hedge fund manager Joel Greenblatt, the intention of the formula is to spot high quality companies that are trading at an attractive price. The formula uses ROIC and earnings yield ratios to find quality, undervalued stocks. In general, companies with the lowest combined rank may be the higher quality picks.

There are many different tools to determine whether a company is profitable or not. One of the most popular ratios is the “Return on Assets” (aka ROA). This score indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. The Return on Assets for Orora Limited (ASX:ORA) is 0.063095. This number is calculated by dividing net income after tax by the company’s total assets. A company that manages their assets well will have a higher return, while a company that manages their assets poorly will have a lower return.

The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength. The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not. The Piotroski F-Score of Orora Limited (ASX:ORA) is 7. A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock. The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings. It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue. The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.

Investors may be interested in viewing the Gross Margin score on shares of Orora Limited (ASX:ORA). The name currently has a score of 50. This score is derived from the Gross Margin (Marx) stability and growth over the previous eight years. The Gross Margin score lands on a scale from 1 to 100 where a score of 1 would be considered positive, and a score of 100 would be seen as negative.

Although the investing process is fairly straightforward, securing consistent returns in the stock market is not easy. Throwing hard earned money at un-researched investments can eventually lead the investor down the road to ruin. Every individual investor may have different goals when starting out. Aligning these goals with a specific plan can create a solid foundation for the future. Nobody can predict what the future will hold, but being aware of market conditions can be a great asset when attempting to navigate the terrain while mitigating risk. Once the vision of the individual investor is clear, the road to sustaining profits may be much easier to travel.