The Piotroski F-Score is a scoring system between 1-9 that determines a firm’s financial strength. The score helps determine if a company’s stock is valuable or not. The Piotroski F-Score of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 8. A score of nine indicates a high value stock, while a score of one indicates a low value stock. The score is calculated by the return on assets (ROA), Cash flow return on assets (CFROA), change in return of assets, and quality of earnings. It is also calculated by a change in gearing or leverage, liquidity, and change in shares in issue. The score is also determined by change in gross margin and change in asset turnover.

One way to completely avoid market mistakes is to not invest at all. Of course, that could end up to be the greatest mistake of all. Investors will occasionally make some mistakes, as that comes with the territory. The key as with most things in life is to figure out how to learn from past mistakes and use that knowledge to make better decisions going forward. Pinpointing exactly what went wrong may help shed some light on what needs improvement. Sometimes, investors will suffer losses and become discouraged right out of the gate. The tendency is to then try to recoup losses by taking even bigger risks which can lead to complete disaster. One of the biggest differences between successful investors and failed investors is the willingness and ability to learn from past personal mistakes.

**Current Ratio**

The Current Ratio of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 1.67. The Current Ratio is used by investors to determine whether a company can pay short term and long term debts. The current ratio looks at all the liquid and non-liquid assets compared to the company’s total current liabilities. A high current ratio indicates that the company might have trouble managing their working capital. A low current ratio (when the current liabilities are higher than the current assets) indicates that the company may have trouble paying their short term obligations.

The Return on Invested Capital (aka ROIC) for PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 0.581400. The Return on Invested Capital is a ratio that determines whether a company is profitable or not. It tells investors how well a company is turning their capital into profits. The ROIC is calculated by dividing the net operating profit (or EBIT) by the employed capital. The employed capital is calculated by subrating current liabilities from total assets. Similarly, the Return on Invested Capital Quality ratio is a tool in evaluating the quality of a company’s ROIC over the course of five years. The ROIC Quality of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 3.387824. This is calculated by dividing the five year average ROIC by the Standard Deviation of the 5 year ROIC. The ROIC 5 year average is calculated using the five year average EBIT, five year average (net working capital and net fixed assets). The ROIC 5 year average of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 0.255100.

The Gross Margin Score is calculated by looking at the Gross Margin and the overall stability of the company over the course of 8 years. The score is a number between one and one hundred (1 being best and 100 being the worst). The Gross Margin Score of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 6.00000. The more stable the company, the lower the score. If a company is less stable over the course of time, they will have a higher score.

**MF Rank**

The MF Rank (aka the Magic Formula) is a formula that pinpoints a valuable company trading at a good price. The formula is calculated by looking at companies that have a high earnings yield as well as a high return on invested capital. The MF Rank of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 312. A company with a low rank is considered a good company to invest in. The Magic Formula was introduced in a book written by Joel Greenblatt, entitled, “The Little Book that Beats the Market”.

The Q.i. Value of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 2.00000. The Q.i. Value is a helpful tool in determining if a company is undervalued or not. The Q.i. Value is calculated using the following ratios: EBITDA Yield, Earnings Yield, FCF Yield, and Liquidity. The lower the Q.i. value, the more undervalued the company is thought to be.

Turning to Free Cash Flow Growth (FCF Growth), this is the free cash flow of the current year minus the free cash flow from the previous year, divided by last year’s free cash flow. The FCF Growth of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 1.011943. Free cash flow (FCF) is the cash produced by the company minus capital expenditure. This cash is what a company uses to meet its financial obligations, such as making payments on debt or to pay out dividends. The Free Cash Flow Score (FCF Score) is a helpful tool in calculating the free cash flow growth with free cash flow stability – this gives investors the overall quality of the free cash flow.

**Value Composite**

The Value Composite One (VC1) is a method that investors use to determine a company’s value. The VC1 of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 19. A company with a value of 0 is thought to be an undervalued company, while a company with a value of 100 is considered an overvalued company.

The VC1 is calculated using the price to book value, price to sales, EBITDA to EV, price to cash flow, and price to earnings. Similarly, the Value Composite Two (VC2) is calculated with the same ratios, but adds the Shareholder Yield. The Value Composite Two of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 12.

**Volatility**

Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase. Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year. The Volatility 12m of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 28.158600. This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized.

The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility. The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months. The Volatility 3m of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 24.827000. The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months. The Volatility 6m is 26.858800.

**ERP5 Rank**

The ERP5 Rank is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. The ERP5 looks at the Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The ERP5 of PAO Severstal (LSE:SVST) is 2156. The lower the ERP5 rank, the more undervalued a company is thought to be.

With the stock market trading at current levels, investors may be tossing around ideas about how to trade the next few quarters. As we slip further into the second half of the year, investors may be assessing the latest earnings reports and trying to calculate the future prospects of certain stocks. Finding bargain stocks at current levels may be much harder than spotting hidden gems when markets are down. Plowing through the fundamentals may help sort out some of the questions that investors may have that come along with trading at these levels. Investors may have to do a little more homework in order to identify that next great trade, but the rewards may be well worth the extra time and effort.

At the time of writing, Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) has a Piotroski F-Score of 6. The F-Score may help discover companies with strengthening balance sheets. The score may also be used to spot the weak performers. Joseph Piotroski developed the F-Score which employs nine different variables based on the company financial statement. A single point is assigned to each test that a stock passes. Typically, a stock scoring an 8 or 9 would be seen as strong. On the other end, a stock with a score from 0-2 would be viewed as weak.

Investors will most likely make plenty of mistakes when dealing with the equity market. Learning from these mistakes is what will propel the individual forward. Those who don’t learn from their mistakes are destined to repeat, and failure might be right around the corner. Every investor strives to spot that uncovered stock before it explodes. However, chasing returns from big winners that have already made their moves may end up leaving the investor befuddled. Even though a stock has been hot, there is no guarantee that it will stay hot. Many investors may get stock tips from friends or colleagues. Of course the tips may be legitimate, but they could just be irrelevant. When it comes to stock picking strategies, investors might be best served to make sure that they have done the actual research themselves. Making trades based on tips or rumors may place the investor in a tough spot for future market success.

**Return on Invested Capital (ROIC), ROIC Quality, ROIC 5 Year Average**

The Return on Invested Capital (aka ROIC) for Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 0.151369. The Return on Invested Capital is a ratio that determines whether a company is profitable or not. It tells investors how well a company is turning their capital into profits. The ROIC is calculated by dividing the net operating profit (or EBIT) by the employed capital. The employed capital is calculated by subrating current liabilities from total assets. Similarly, the Return on Invested Capital Quality ratio is a tool in evaluating the quality of a company’s ROIC over the course of five years. The ROIC Quality of Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 9.905251. This is calculated by dividing the five year average ROIC by the Standard Deviation of the 5 year ROIC. The ROIC 5 year average is calculated using the five year average EBIT, five year average (net working capital and net fixed assets). The ROIC 5 year average of Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 0.140939.

**Leverage Ratio**

The Leverage Ratio of Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 0.195089. Leverage ratio is the total debt of a company divided by total assets of the current and past year divided by two. Companies take on debt to finance their day to day operations. The leverage ratio can measure how much of a company’s capital comes from debt. With this ratio, investors can better estimate how well a company will be able to pay their long and short term financial obligations.

**Return on Assets**

There are many different tools to determine whether a company is profitable or not. One of the most popular ratios is the “Return on Assets” (aka ROA). This score indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. The Return on Assets for Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 0.090630. This number is calculated by dividing net income after tax by the company’s total assets. A company that manages their assets well will have a higher return, while a company that manages their assets poorly will have a lower return.

Turning to Free Cash Flow Growth (FCF Growth), this is the free cash flow of the current year minus the free cash flow from the previous year, divided by last year’s free cash flow. The FCF Growth of Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 4.294902. Free cash flow (FCF) is the cash produced by the company minus capital expenditure. This cash is what a company uses to meet its financial obligations, such as making payments on debt or to pay out dividends.

The Free Cash Flow Score (FCF Score) is a helpful tool in calculating the free cash flow growth with free cash flow stability – this gives investors the overall quality of the free cash flow.

Stock volatility is a percentage that indicates whether a stock is a desirable purchase. Investors look at the Volatility 12m to determine if a company has a low volatility percentage or not over the course of a year. The Volatility 12m of Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 23.642300. This is calculated by taking weekly log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over one year annualized.

The lower the number, a company is thought to have low volatility. The Volatility 3m is a similar percentage determined by the daily log normal returns and standard deviation of the share price over 3 months. The Volatility 3m of Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 21.985700. The Volatility 6m is the same, except measured over the course of six months. The Volatility 6m is 25.886400.

**ERP5 Rank**

The ERP5 Rank is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. The ERP5 looks at the Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The ERP5 of Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 7150. The lower the ERP5 rank, the more undervalued a company is thought to be.

**MF Rank**

The MF Rank (aka the Magic Formula) is a formula that pinpoints a valuable company trading at a good price. The formula is calculated by looking at companies that have a high earnings yield as well as a high return on invested capital. The MF Rank of Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 5792. A company with a low rank is considered a good company to invest in. The Magic Formula was introduced in a book written by Joel Greenblatt, entitled, “The Little Book that Beats the Market”.

Following all the swirling information about publically traded companies can be quite a task. Every day there may be new pieces of news that emerge about a specific company. The prudent investor is typically able to keep abreast of the information, but most importantly figure out what news is worth paying attention to, and what news should be filtered out. Keeping a sharp eye on earnings reports and fundamental company data can play a big part in picking the right stocks for the portfolio. Once the numbers have been crunched, investors should be able to see things a little bit clearer and know what the general feel for the stock is. Of course there will be stocks that look good after thorough examination but still fail to perform as expected.

The Q.i. Value of Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 34.00000. The Q.i. Value is a helpful tool in determining if a company is undervalued or not. The Q.i. Value is calculated using the following ratios: EBITDA Yield, Earnings Yield, FCF Yield, and Liquidity. The lower the Q.i. value, the more undervalued the company is thought to be.

The Value Composite One (VC1) is a method that investors use to determine a company’s value. The VC1 of Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 47. A company with a value of 0 is thought to be an undervalued company, while a company with a value of 100 is considered an overvalued company. The VC1 is calculated using the price to book value, price to sales, EBITDA to EV, price to cash flow, and price to earnings. Similarly, the Value Composite Two (VC2) is calculated with the same ratios, but adds the Shareholder Yield. The Value Composite Two of Whitbread PLC (LSE:WTB) is 42.

Investors who are able to wipe the slate clean and take a fresh look at a certain stock may be able to make more informed decisions that will hopefully lead to increased profits in the long-term. Figuring out when to sell an underperforming stock may end up being just as important as figuring out which stocks to buy. As the stock market continues to trade near record levels, investors will be closely following trading action heading into the latter half of the year. With many stocks reaching new highs, investors may need to make sure that they aren’t getting too overconfident with trades. When a few winning trades are strung together, investors may feel like they have the Midas touch and they can do no wrong. Nobody knows for sure how long stocks will stay in favor with investors. Keeping track of the portfolio’s contents can help when quick decisions need to be made. There may come a time when the tide turns and making a winning trade may seem impossible. Investors might want to have a plan in place in case of a sudden major market downturn. Keeping the portfolio stable during periods of market uncertainty may help prepare for unforeseen events in the future. Although there are many market enthusiasts that think the bull run may be on its last legs, there are just as many who believe that the best is yet to come, and there is much mor e room for stocks to climb.

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